The main differences are in the calcium, phosphate, lactic acid and lactate contents, which are higher in acid whey than in sweet whey . Colloidal calcium becomes more soluble in acid environment and, consequently, by the acid coagulation of casein, part of the calcium dissolves and passes into the whey.
- Skim milk powder has been reported for fortification of nontraditional white soft cheese in Egypt.
- A world-wide protein deficiency makes the production of yeast from whey particularly attractive, as a much needed food supplement rich in proteins and vitamins can be made from a substrate which is often used inefficiently or wasted.
- Some studies have already been carried out for the use of the SCW , but the information available is still scarce.
- The way in which the water consuming and operation processes are carried out is indicative of the management quality.
- Chessa L., Paba A., Daga E., Caredda M., Comunian R. Optimization of scotta as growth medium to preserve biodiversity and maximise bacterial cells concentration of natural starter cultures for Pecorino Romano PDO cheese.
Skim milk is that portion of whole milk which remains after the removal of the cream. According to PFA , fat from the skimmed milk has been removed mechanically and shall not contain more than 0.5% milk fat and not less than 8.5% milk solid- not fat. It may be utilized for manufacturing of main dairy products or preserved by removing moisture in spray dried form to obtain skim milk powder. When skim milk is consumed in any of these two products then it is not considered as by-product. It is considered as by-product when it is either not economically utilized or utilized for derived product like casein, co-precipitate, protein hydrolysate etc. Over the past decades, many researchers have studied the economical possibilities of whey utilisation, primarily how to unwanted by-product converted into a valuable raw material.
2.1. Solid waste
Separated, pasteurized, https://personal-accounting.org/, cheese whey with a quantity of sugar equal to the weight of the solids in the whey, is drawn into a vacuum pan and condensed to at least 75 per cent total solids. The concentrate is cooled to 35°C (95°F), seeded and stirred slowly for 1 to 3 hours to crystallize the lactose. The pressed curd, which has a rather low keeping quality, can be utilized either for direct consumption after the addition of sugar @ 15 per cent, or in the manufacture of processed cheese up to 10 per cent of raw cheese. The waste load, expressed as BOD depends to a large degree on the style of management. Table 21 gives an example of the relationship between management practices and waste production in terms of BOD and the amount of wastewater produced. The table shows that a large quantity of processed milk does not necessarily lead to higher waste loads or to higher levels of wastewater production. The ranges in Table 19 also indicate that the production of wastewater is highly influenced by management practices .
- Paneer represents a South Asian variety of soft cheese prepared by acid and heat coagulation of milk.
- Salting can be conducted during the heating stage or by adding salt to the curd after the draining stage .
- Literature confirms that whey proteins and minerals, especially, calcium and phosphate, are the main contributors for the fouling of UF membranes .
- In the past, economical and easy solutions were used by dairy industries to discard SCW such as spreading of the product on fields or elimination in rivers, lakes and ocean .
The authors revealed that the progressive increase of Milk By-Products Utilization percentage was followed by increase in moisture and yield. Buttermilk has been added to reduced-fat cheese up to 40% and was found to improve the sensory scores in comparison to the control . Ghee is an important constituent of Indian meal prepared using different methods.
Albumin or Whey Cheese(s)
Therefore, the quality of forage has a large effect on bovine milk production in the dairy industry. In China, alfalfa hay is widely used as a high-quality forage, but approximately 230 million kilogram of AH has to be imported from other countries annually because of a shortage , substantially increasing milk production cost. Furthermore, the gap between supply and demand for high-quality forage is increasing by approximately 10% annually .
The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding.